battle of st neots

The Battle of St Neots

battle of st neots

On Sunday, 9 July 1648, seven months prior to the execution of King Charles, the Earl and his army of approximately 400 men entered St Neots in the county of Huntingdonshire. The Earl’s men were hungry and weary, following their escape from Kingston upon Thames, where the Parliamentary forces had completely overwhelmed them. Of his original army of 500, the Earl escaped with around 100 horsemen and were immediately followed by a small party of Puritan and Parliamentary horsemen. After much hesitation regarding in which direction they should flee, the Earl decided on Northampton, and the group made their way via St Albans and Dunstable. Upon the outskirts of Bedford the group turned eastward towards St Neots town. At Kingston, the Earl was joined by the young Duke of Buckingham, his young brother Francis Villiers and the Earl of Peterborough. They were also joined by Colonel John Dalbier, an experienced German soldier who was hated by the Roundheads, having previously served with them under the 3rd Earl of Essex until taking up arms in favour of the Cavaliers’ cause.

The field officers of Holland’s force sought only rest and safety. Colonel Dalbier called a council of war, where many officers voted for dispersing into the surrounding countryside. Others suggested they should continue northwards. Colonel Dalbier advised on the strategic position of St Neots and the fact that the joint remnants of Buckingham and Holland’s forces had increased sufficiently since the retreat from the Roundheads at Kingston. He suggested they meet and engage their pursuers. He further added that, by obtaining a victory, the fortunes of war could be turned in their favour. Due to his vast experience as a soldier, his words were listened to with respect. He further offered to guard them through the night in case of a surprise attack, or meet a soldier’s death in the defence of the town. A vote was taken and Dalbier’s plan was adopted.

The Earl of Holland — who, it was said, “had better faculty at public address than he had with a sword” — joined Buckingham and Peterborough in addressing the principal residents and townsfolk of St Neots. The Duke of Buckingham spoke at length, claiming “they did not wish to continue a bloody war, but wanted only a settled government under Royal King Charles.” Assurances were also given that their Royalist troop would not riot or damage the townfolks’ property. Of the latter, it is recorded that they were faithful to their promise.

Fatigued by their battle and consequent retreat from Kingston, the field officers eagerly sought rest. True to his word, Colonel Dalbier kept watch over them. The small group of Puritan horsemen who had pursued them had, upon reaching Hertford, met with Colonel Scroope and his Roundhead troops from their detachment at Colchester.

At two o’clock on Monday morning, 10 July, 100 dragoons from the Parliament forces arrived ahead of the main army at Eaton Ford. Dalbier was at once informed, and immediately gave the alarm: “To horse, to horse!” The dragoons, equipped with musket and sword, crossed St Neots’ bridge before the Royalists were fully prepared. The Battle of St Neots had begun.

The few Royalists guarding the bridge quickly fell back from the superior numbers before them. The ensuing battle was now fought on the main square and streets of the town. The remaining Royalists were now fully prepared for combat. The main army of Roundheads had also arrived, and a further wave of Puritans crossed the bridge into town. The battle was fierce, with the Puritans gaining ground.

Colonel Dalbier died during the early stages of the battle. Other prominent Royalists, including Buckingham’s younger brother Francis Villiers, and Kenelm Digby (son of the scientific writer of the same name), were also killed during the battle. Other officers and men drowned whilst attempting to escape by crossing the River Ouse. The young Duke of Buckingham, being overwhelmed by the speed of these events, escaped with 60 horsemen to Huntingdon, with the intention of continuing towards Lincolnshire. Upon realising the Roundheads were in hot pursuit, he changed plans, and via an evasive route returned to London from where he later escaped to France.

The Earl of Holland with his personal guard fought their way to the inn at which he had stayed the previous night. The gates had been closed and locked, but were quickly opened to admit him, and immediately closed again as he entered. The Parliamentarians soon battered them down and entered the inn. The door of the Earl’s room was burst open to reveal him facing them, sword in hand. It is recorded that he offered surrender of himself, his army and the town of St Neots, on condition that his life was spared.

The Puritans seized the Earl and took him before Colonel Scroope, who ordered him to be shackled and imprisoned under guard. The remaining Royalist prisoners were locked in St Neots parish church overnight, then taken to Hitchin the following morning. The Earl and five other field officers were taken to Warwick Castle, which had remained a parliamentary stronghold throughout the war. They remained prisoners for the next six months, until their trial for high treason. In London it was said “His Lordship may spend time as well as he can and have leisure to repent his juvenile folly.”

Peterborough also escaped disguised as a gentleman merchant, but was later recognised and arrested. Friends aided their escape again whilst en route to London for trial. He then stayed at various safe houses, financed by his mother, until he managed to flee the country.

This text has been reproduced from wikipedia under Creative Commons licence.

Wintringham Park archaeological survey

In November the museum curator was lucky enough to be part of a group that visited the archaeological dig going on opposite Loves Farm in preparation for the Wintringham Farm housing development.

Many thanks to Don Hill from the St Neots Local History Society for organising the visit and Project Manager Tom Phillips andProject Officer Pat Moan, both from Oxford Archaeology East for showing us around the site.

The excavations have revealed evidence of several Iron Age period (400 to 100BC) round houses. They often leave little evidence in the ground where they once stood but the shallow ditch that can just be seen in this photograph, shows where rainwater ran off the thatched roof of the house.

The Iron Age families who lived on the site 2,000 years ago were farmers who grew cereal crops and kept cows, sheep and pigs, and the archaeologists have found evidence of tracks and field boundaries from the Iron Age period, similar, and in some cases linked to, the tracks and boundaries that they found were the Loves farm development now stands.

The photograph above shows the excavated remains of a pond that was dug, during the Iron Age, among the fields to provide drinking water for farm animals. The sloping pathway to the pond was cobbled to allow easier access for the animals.

Fragments of Iron Age pottery have also been discovered and it is fascinating to think of the people who used the pottery and lived on the site over 2,000 years ago. This is only the first phase of archaeological excavations on the site and if there are going to be open days and site tours there will be plenty of publicity to let everyone know.

Ann Izzard – the witch of St Neots

The laws against the crime of witchcraft were repealed in 1736 but, in the absence of legal redress, communities periodically took to enacting mob vengeance against suspected witches.

In 1808 several young women in the village of Great Paxton in Cambridgeshire began to suffer from fits and depression – all signs of evil at work. Then a local farmer accused Ann Izzard of magically overturning his cart while returning from the market in St Neots.

Something had to be done. On the evening of Sunday 8 May a mob broke into the cottage of Ann and her husband, and she was dragged semi-naked out into the yard where they beat her in the face and stomach with a club. Others scratched her arms to draw blood, and so break her witchery.

The mob dispersed, but when they heard that a neighbour, a widow named Alice Russel, was harbouring Ann, they threatened her too. “The protectors of a witch, are just as bad as the witch,” it was declared.

The next evening, Ann was attacked again, and word spread that she was to be swum. She wisely fled o another village and instituted legal proceedings, resulting in the prosecution of nine villagers at the assizes.

The Priory of St Neots

The foundation of the priory of St Neots is so involved in legend that it is almost impossible to separate what is true in it from what is merely the work of imagination. It may be that there was a monastery founded in this place before the period of Danish invasions in the 9th century; but of this there is no proof beyond the tradition recorded by Thomas of Ely. At any rate, the monastery known by the name of St. Neots Priory cannot be dated earlier than the reign of Edgar, under whose patronage so many religious houses were restored or built. The traditional date, between 972 and 975, would place this priory a little later than the abbey of Ramsey.

The founders are said to have been a certain earl Alric or Leofric, and his wife. Whether they founded the house in honour of the relics of St. Neot, which had fallen into their hands, as the chronicler declares, by an unexpected piece of good fortune, or whether they built their monastery first, and obtained the relics by some means afterwards, is a matter of little moment. The foundation was apparently made, like that of Ramsey, with the assistance of St. Oswald of Worcester, and the first monks were sent partly from Thorney and partly from Ely, being made subject to the latter house.

It is probable that the monastery was destroyed wholly or in part by the Danes in the later invasion of 1010; but it seems that a few monks lived on there till the Conquest. The manor of Eynesbury, in which St. Neots lay, belonged in 1086 to Roys, wife of Richard, son of Gilbert. Richard, her husband, it is said, expelled the English monks, and placed the house under the dominion of the Norman abbey of Bec. The first monks of the new foundation were sent by no less a person than St. Anselm himself, who had recently been elected to the chair left vacant by the appointment of Lanfranc to the see of Canterbury. The historian of Ely alleges that the three English monks, unable to accept the new régime, were sent across channel and placed in durance at Bec for the rest of their lives.

Some few years after the foundation of the new priory doubt was expressed whether the relics treasured in the shrine were really those of St. Neot. St. Anselm had the chest opened in his presence, and expressed his opinion that they were true relics. It would be interesting to know upon what token his verdict was based; the relics had had almost as chequered a history as those of St. Alban, and their character might well be considered doubtful.

Roys, wife of Richard, son of Gilbert, in her widowhood endowed the priory with more lands, and persuaded her children to follow her example. Her son Robert chose it for his burial-place; his wife, Maud de Senliz, gave the monks one-third of the manor of Cratefield, Norfolk; William d’Albini, son of Maud by a second marriage, King Malcolm and King William of Scotland, Henry Earl of Huntingdon, and Alan Dapifer, steward of Countess Roys, were all benefactors in the course of the 12th century.

Here, as elsewhere, there were suits on the subject of lands and churches in the 12th and 13th centuries. But the value of the priory seems to have decreased rather rapidly from this time, owing to the constant change of superiors. The earliest prior whose name is recorded, Martin, had been a man celebrated for his humility and holiness; so much so that when he was made abbot of Peterborough by Henry I without the consent of the convent, he soon earned the love and respect of his new subjects. Herbert, prior from 1159 to 1173, seems to have been mindful of the interests of the house under his charge; but after this there were constant changes, and the tone of the house was lowered, as in most of the alien priories. The abbot across the sea looked upon his English cells as merely a source of revenue; the alien priors knew they might be recalled at any time, and took no interest in the welfare of the house. During the 14th century, through the wars with France, the priory was constantly in the hands of the king’s escheators, and things went from bad to worse. Finally, in 1412, the priory was declared independent of Bec, on the ground that divine service was neglected and revenues diminished by maladministration. An English prior, Edward Salisbury, was placed in charge, under obedience to the diocesan, and the house entered upon a new career.

There had been early in the 14th century twelve to fifteen monks at St. Neots,  but just before it was declared independent of Bec, all the French monks but two had gone home. It seems to have begun again with about twelve monks. Bishop Grey visited the house a few years after the denization, but his visitation may not have been very thorough. The injunctions are all formal, and show no bad signs; he ordered seats in the cloister, called carels, to be put up for the convenience of the monks in study, and two bells were to be hung, one in the cloister and one in the refectory. The condition of the priory at this time could not, however, have been very satisfactory, as in 1439, only a little later, Bishop Alnwick found a good deal that was amiss. The cloister and the church were both in bad repair, so that the rain came in on the choir books; the debts of the house were so serious that the monks were afraid to go out for fear of their creditors; the prior was neglectful of his office, and was accused of having obtained it by unfair means. The night office was not regularly said, and there was some suspicion of unchaste living.

The results of the visitation are not known, but the report of Bishop Smith in 1506 again implies a low standard. The accounts were not duly stated; deeds were sealed without the consent of the chapter; the brethren were not cheerful in their obedience, and they were not strict about wearing the habit of the order. Reform was ordered on all points, and the prior, having confessed his irregularities to the bishop in the chapter-house, was put to penance.

The commissioners who visited Ramsey and the neighbourhood in 1535-6 make no mention of St. Neots. They may perhaps have put out some monks professed under the age of twenty-five, according to their instructions; for as many as 11 signed the Acknowledgment of Supremacy, and only 7 surrendered with the prior in 1539. The value of the house was over £200, so it was not dissolved under the first Act, but lingered on till 21 December 1539, The prior then received a pension of £40, and his companions annuities varying from £7 to £6 6s. 8d.  Five of them were still living in 1554.

The priory was endowed by Countess Roys with the whole manor of St. Neots, and the manor of Cratefield in Norfolk was given by other members of her family, with parcels of land and churches in the counties of Bedford, Cambridge, Suffolk and Northampton. The churches of St. Neots, Everton and Eynesbury in this county, Tempsford, Turvey, Edworth, Melchbourne in Bedfordshire, Barton Bendish, Beecham Well, Wimbish and Cratefield in Norfolk, Brampton Dingley and Hemington in Northamptonshire, Ubstone in Suffolk, Wing in Rutland, Cottesford in Oxfordshire, Pillerto in Warwickshire, East Boscombe and Cheldreton in Wiltshire, Ayot St. Peter in Hertfordshire, were all at one time in the possession of the priory. The churches of Melchbourne and Eynesbury were very early lost; the history of these and the others in relation to St. Neots has been so fully described by Gorham that it is not necessary to give any details here. The valuation of the temporal and spiritual property of the prior at the end of the 13th century was about £227:  in 1535 it was £241 11s. 4½d., including the appropriate rectories of St. Neots, Everton, Hemington, Turvey, Upstone, Cratefield, and the manors of Crendon, Charlton, Barford, and Turvey in Bedfordshire, and Upstone in Suffolk. The first report of the Crown Bailiff gave a total of £256 15s. 8d.

Extract taken from A History of the County of Huntingdon: Volume 1. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1926.

The Eaton Socon Cage

Eaton Socon’s unique village Cage or lock-up is positioned just off the Great North Road in the centre of the old village near the church. Visitors to this suburb of the present town of St Neots often wonder why the original village needed one and what it was used for.

Today the village of Eaton Socon is in Cambridgeshire but it was not always so, and many visitors are unaware of the village’s history. Up to 1965 the village and parish of Eaton Socon were in Bedfordshire, and had been for centuries.

This village lock-up was important as it provided a place for the local drunks and other people who committed misdemeanours who could not be taken to St Neots as it was in Huntingdonshire. They could be put in the lock-up for the night and taken, if needed, to the magistrates in Bedford the following day.

The building of the Cage

The Cage in School Lane, Eaton Socon, goes back to the days, before the establishment of a county police force, when the parish was responsible for law and order within its own boundaries. In the early 19th century the vestry was the parish’s governing body and it remained so until it was replaced by the parish council. It was responsible for appointing the constable, one of the most important officers in the parish, and his responsibilities went far beyond those associated with law and order.

At Eaton Socon there were the village stocks, which were repaired in 1807 and again in 1827. However, it was decided that more was needed and in May 1825 the Vestry ordered that a cage should be built ‘to confine the refractory’. Nothing was done that year, so the next year the Vestry ordered the vicar, the churchwardens and the overseers to attend to it.

The result was that ‘the Cage’ or village lock-up was soon built. It is particularly interesting among surviving village lock-ups, as it has two cells, whereas many only have one. One of these cells was provided with a bench, which could also serve as a bed, and there were also chains to 7 restrain more violent inmates. The plastered ceiling was backed with iron plates to prevent prisoners breaking through the roof.

A fire-engine house

The fire engine house on the left and the Cage on the right, pre-1909. Many posters are on the buildings advertising local events.

A few years later it gained a ‘twin’. The thatched cottages in the village were extremely susceptible to fire and it was decided that a fire engine for the parish was needed. In 1831 a subscription was raised to buy a parish fire engine and the engine house was built onto the side of the Cage. The subscription list (now in the Record Office at Bedford) shows that a total of £191 was raised to meet the cost of the engine and the building.

In January 1831 the fire engine was described as:

A strong Improved Patent Carriage Engine with Metallic Valves and Brass Pistons fixed in an Oak Cistern with side Pockets for Suction Pipes and Box for the Hose, Driving seat and foot board mounted on four best Steel Springs, faggotted Iron Axletrees Strong Spoke wheels, Ash fellies and Hoop tire, Fore Locking Carriage of seasoned Ash, eyes for shafts, Splinter bar and Pole for Post Horses. Painted Lt Blue picked out Vermillion, a Suction Pipe with Brass Screws and Copper Rose and Copper Branch Pipe to a Box to attach to the Engine.

This engine was, of course, horse-drawn and must have been an impressive sight when it was finally delivered from London to Eaton Socon. A letter from W J Tilly, of 166 Blackfriars Road, dated 31 January 8 1831, to Mr John Hobson says: ‘I beg to inform you the Fire Engine and apparatus as per Invoice on the other side was this day sent to the Three Cups Inn, Aldersgate Street, to be forwarded to you at Eaton by Allison which I trust will arrive safe.’ From January 1833 there survives a letter noting that 12 large leather buckets with writing on the sides had cost the parish a further £6 9s (£6.45).

Various documents survive for the building of the fire-engine house but none sadly survives for the lock-up. The exact number of building bricks and roofing tiles for the engine house is known and how much it cost for the scaffolding – the total cost being £13 5s (£13.25).

The Cage was clearly used quite frequently over the next 25 years or so, and occasionally an escape occurred – as the following report in the St Neots Chronicle of 27 February 1858 showed:

Eaton Socon – A Bird Escaped his Cage: On Friday last, a prisoner, charged with felony, was placed in the lock-up about noon to await his examination the next morning. About 10 o’clock at night, police-constable Bedlow saw him safely locked up, and about twelve o’clock went again but the bird had flown, having made a hole about two feet square in the brickwork, which was three feet thick. The lock-up was always considered to be impregnable; as several notorious characters have tried to make their escape out of it, but have failed. The prisoner is an Irishman, and is known to be a very clever and expert thief. The affair caused much merriment among the villagers.

Presumably the man made good his escape, as there is no further reference to him in later issues.

The buildings fall into disuse

As the 19th century progressed, the fire engine, the house and the Cage were used less and less, and eventually fell into total disuse. The County Surveyor’s report of 1892 states: ‘The building here belongs to the 9 parish; it is in a very dilapidated state, no use being made of same.’ An old Etonian, writing in 1965, however, reckoned that he could remember the last man who had been confined in the Cage. This was, he said, for drunkenness and happened in the mid-1890s. The fire engine had been allowed to fall into such disrepair that it no longer worked, and in 1896 the Parish Council sold it to Shand Mason and Co. Both the engine house and Cage became derelict. In 1900 it was said that the Cage was used to store oil, ladders and spare parts.

The end of the fire-engine house

The Cage survived two major threats to its survival in the 20th century, see below. In keeping with many other parishes, Eaton Socon established an Institute for reading and recreation.

There was some difficulty in finding a suitable site for this, but two possible plots were eventually discovered, one being behind the Cage and the engine house. A public meeting was held on 5 October 1908 to make a decision as to which plot would be best, and the one behind the Cage and engine house was the popular choice.

Inevitably this led to a discussion about the future of these two, old, obsolete buildings. The chairman, John Walter Addington, said that it would be a good job to get them cleared away, and the meeting voted unanimously to ask the District Council to remove the Cage to provide an adequate access to the Institute. However, when the Institute was erected in 1909, it was just the engine house, described as the more modern part of the group, that was demolished.

The end of the Cage

Nothing was done to maintain the Cage, and it continued to deteriorate until 1938–39 when some work was carried out on it through the initiative of John R H Bedford and local historian and archaeologist C F Tebbutt, at their own expense.

By the 1960s, however, it was once again in a very poor state and, when the management committee of the Institute decided to carry out major restoration work on the building in 1962, it was felt that the Cage was such an eyesore with rotting timbers and crumbling brickwork, it would detract from anything they did to the outside of the Institute, and there was a determined move to remove it.

Although more moderate opinion talked of re-sitting it or cleaning it up, others wanted more drastic action and the Institute management committee were keen on its removal. The parish council was divided on 10 the issue and the fight to retain it, both in parish council meetings and elsewhere, was led by John R H Bedford, who saw it as an important part of the village’s heritage. John Bedford was quoted as saying that he would ‘enlist the aid of preservation societies and any other possible moves to acquire its retention where it now stands’. Harold White, editor of the Bedfordshire Magazine, became involved and also Professor Sir Albert Richardson, the eminent architect, who some 30 years before had overseen the restoration of Eaton Socon Church following the disastrous fire of 1930.

View of the lock-up and the Institute, possibly in the 1930s – note the well maintained garden fence of a thatched cottage which burnt down in 1939

Several meetings followed and at one stormy meeting 27 people voted to save the building, with 17 against. A Ministry of Housing and Local Government enquiry was held at the Institute in July, and it was decided that the Cage would remain.

Although architecturally it was said to be of little interest, its historical significance made it worth retaining. A preservation order was made, but feelings still ran high in the village and one parish councillor went so far as to ask whether there was any chance of blowing up the Cage!

Despite assurances in 1962 that work would be carried out to improve its condition, little appeared to happen beyond the Parish Council voting 11 to fit a new lock and keeping it locked. This was necessary as boys used to play around it and dare one another to be shut in it.

Beds and Hunts Naturalist Trust restore the Cage

A meeting was held in October 1962 with a sub-committee of the Bedfordshire County Council, Eaton Socon Parish Council, the Institute Management Committee, and the Beds and Hunts Naturalists Trust, which had expressed an interest in restoring ancient buildings. Progress was slow, and it was not until July 1963 that it was agreed that the Cage would be restored. At the end of September an impatient Institute Management Committee was calling for action on the restoration, which was estimated to cost around £175. More than another year passed before the details were hammered out, and in January 1965 it was announced that the Cage was to be leased at a peppercorn rent to Beds and Hunts Naturalists’ Trust, who would maintain it.

1965 to 2008

During these years very little was done to maintain the building, but several things have occurred around it. In 1965 the line of the present A1 was decided, which resulted in the village of Eaton Socon changing counties from Bedfordshire to Huntingdonshire and in 1974 it changed again to Cambridgeshire. How this would affect the Cage would not be known for many years. In 1976 there was a fire which badly damaged the Institute, resulting in the building being demolished and being replaced by the present Jubilee Hall built further back on the site and opened in 1977, the year of the Queen’s Silver Jubilee. This left the Cage at the entrance to the car park, which was not ideal and when, in the 1980s, it was suggested to move it physically across the road to a safer place, it was once again the villagers who said it should not be moved. This is where it was built and this is where it should stay!

St Neots Town Council takes over the Cage

After many years of little or no work on the Cage its deterioration was becoming clear and around 2007 there were moves to carry out some work on the building. It was found that the Beds and Hunts Naturalists Trust (now The Wildlife Trust for Beds, Cambs and Northants) had no knowledge that they were responsible for the building, were not paying any peppercorn rent to anyone, and had no knowledge as to who owned the building. It appeared that when the paperwork for the Institute had been completed in the 1960s, when the village first changed counties, the Cage was not mentioned and no paperwork could be found for its ownership. Newspaper interviews and visits from local television raised the question of ownership and finally, in 2008, with the agreement of the Land Registry, the St Neots Town Council adopted the Cage and will maintain this unique heritage for the future.

Other village lock-ups still remain in situ in Clophill, Harrold and Silsoe in Bedfordshire and Broughton, Fenstanton, Sawtry and Needingworth in old Huntingdonshire. However, the Eaton Socon Cage is unique in that it is larger than the normal village lock-up and it has survived several attempts to remove it. It is part of our heritage and with the ownership now in safe hands it should survive for many more years. The Eatons Community Association hold a key and open the Cage regularly in the summer months. It is also opened for pupils in nearby schools and other visits for local groups can be arranged.

The Cage today – older villagers recall that the T-shaped ironwork on the side of the building was the support for a lamp to light the road on dark nights.

The original article was published in Bedfordshire Local History Association newsletter, Spring 2015. Written by David Bushby, updated by Sue Jarrett in 2014.
archaeology st neots

The Archaeology of Love’s Farm, St Neots

The Love’s Farm project represents a detailed archaeological examination of the later Prehistoric and Roman agricultural landscape on a previously unprecedented scale within the region. The site, located on heavy clay soils and adjacent to St Neots in Cambridgeshire, covered 60ha over half of which was stripped during the course of the excavations.

Following several years of evaluation work that identified the presence of this fascinating archaeological site, the Archaeological Field Unit of Cambridgeshire County Council (now Oxford Archaeology East) was commissioned by JJ Gallagher Ltd to carry out a programme of archaeological excavation in 2005-8 in advance of development of the site for housing.

Clay soils like those around St Neots mask sites and can mislead archaeologists. Heavy clay can limit the effectiveness of field-walking, aerial photographic interpretation and geophysical surveys. This was the case at Love’s Farm. It was the digging of trial trenches that revealed the true extent of the remains that had to be excavated.

In archaeology it is sometimes the case that the bigger the hole the better the result. At Love’s Farm we dug a very big hole and have revealed some very interesting results.

Excavation results

Excavation at Love’s Farm has completely transformed our understanding of the earliest inhabitants of the area around St Neots. Extensive remains of settlement and associated activities spanning over 5,000 years have been revealed.

Neolithic pits containing pottery, worked flint and a polished stone axe dating from around 3500BC were the earliest finds from the site. Evidence for the first farmers in the area was provided by the identification of the remains of a Bronze Age field system dating from around 1,500BC.

An agricultural community occupied the site for over 700 years from at least 200BC to around the 5th or 6th centuries AD. From the Iron Age through the Romano-British period and on into the Early Saxon period successive generations lived on this land, improving drainage, growing new crops, managing livestock, adding enclosures, buildings, roads and monuments.

The site was put under the plough in the medieval period and Adam Love was allotted the Farm which was to bear his name as a result of Parliamentary Inclosure in 1770.

One of the most striking results of this excavation is the wealth of new evidence that has been revealed about the evolution of the countryside.

The discoveries show for the first time the extent to which the west of the county owes much of its current appearance to events that took place over two thousand years ago.

We can now see that elements of the hedgerows, field boundaries and footpaths laid down as long ago as the Bronze Age are still visible in the modern landscape.

Everyday life: Housing

Glacial melting pockmarked the surface of the western claylands with frequent shallow depressions. The preferred locations for the earliest settlers were such depressions on south-facing slopes, ideally those with an easterly aspect.

Even the slightest depression seemed an attractive proposition for single dwellings whilst larger hollows allowed room for several houses. The roundhouses of the period would have appeared huddled in these sheltered dips in the landscape, perhaps masking their presence from a distance.

The water-retaining properties of the clay meant that immediate access to running water was not an issue. Water holes were dug to collect and store surface water for domestic use.

Iron Age dwellings were scattered across the landscape whereas the Roman houses and other farm buildings lay within larger enclosed farmyards.

Everyday life: Farming

Clay has certain advantages over other soil types if well managed. Not least amongst these are that groundwater is held within the subsoil/surface geology making the ground drought resistant.

Crop yields can also be considerably higher than on other soils. Modern yields are three times greater on the clay than on the light alluvial soils of the adjacent Ouse valley and are less prone to fail.

For those able to engage in the developing art of ditch digging the likehood of starvation would be significantly reduced.

In order to bring the clay into a suitable condition for farming and habitation it was necessary to control drainage. The digging of ditches created new boundaries and began the process of enclosure.

The Iron Age and Roman farmers grew a range of crops such as wheat and barley as well as keeping cattle and sheep for meat, hides and wool. Horses and dogs were also present.

Everyday life: Industry and trade

Cattle skulls and other bones recovered from the well.

Contact with the continent (Spain, Italy, France and Germany) was demonstrated by an extensive collection of fine late Iron Age jars, a colander and other kitchen wares that were dumped into a ditch close to where they would have been used.

There were also fragments from a range of Samian table wares imported from France as well as flagons, cups and other evidence of a relatively wealthy local population with access to foreign markets.

During the later Roman period it is clear that bone working was a craft specialism on this site as we recovered a large collection of sawn deer antler and cattle horn cores from an enclosure ditch and from the backfill of a stone-lined well.

Waterlogged leather was also found in the well including the remains of shoes of 4th/5th century date. Examples of shoes from rural sites are extremely rare and the Love’s Farm well contained previously unknown types.

Ritual and religion: Metalwork

Examples of metal votive objects

The metalwork from the Love’s Farm site has a distinct bias towards votive (religious) offerings rather than the kind of everyday items such as tools that would be expected on farms. Many of the metal objects seemed to have been deposited into boundary ditches or in the corners of fields rather than being associated with more formal shrines or temples: this provides important new information about religion in the countryside.

One area of the site in particular was the focus of such activity during the Roman period. A flood deposit which overlay a silted up waterhole contained more than thirty metal objects including rings, coins, armlets and brooches. One of the earliest objects was a fragment of a military armilla, an award for service given to ranks below centurion.

Some of the other finds from this layer, such as the rings, coins and a lunulla harness pendant, may have been lunar or solar symbols. The waterlogged context of the layer in which they were found suggests veneration of a deity of spring or stream, while the deposition of possible solar symbols indicates a sky-deity. The latter may have been Minerva in her sky-goddess aspect.

Ritual and religion: Magic

An example of ritual deposition

It was not just metalwork that was specially chosen for burial. Everyday objects such as quern stones (for grinding cereals), loom weights and pots were also selected and placed carefully in the ground.

Animal burial was also an important practice. Examples from Love’s Farm included a number of dogs and horses, the skulls of cattle and horses and the careful placement of red deer antlers within ditches and as a capping deposit within a 5th-century well.

The same types of objects and animal remains tend to be selected for special treatment on other sites in the area and this suggests that the items had some shared symbolic meaning to the people who buried them.

Worship of local gods, belief in magic and protection from supernatural forces are likely to have informed the actions of the local people and would have taken place at certain times of year or to mark special events such as moving house, marriage or death.

Minerva

A drawing of the Minerva handle found at Love’s Farm

One of the most exciting objects discovered during the Love’s Farm excavations was a representation of the Goddess Minerva.

Made from bronze, the bust formed the handle of a wax spatula with an iron blade. Such spatulas were used for cutting up blocks of wax, which was not only used on writing tablets but also for salves and other medicinal preparations.

Minerva was a Middle Eastern goddess of wisdom and learning, and was an appropriate deity to preside over the preparation of wax tablets. She also had links to the healing arts in her role as Minerva Medica.

The representation found at Love’s Farm is comparatively crude, but the goddess is identifiable by her crested Corinthian helmet, which is set on the back of her head behind a high triple-peaked coiffure.

Her triangular nose is prominent but her mouth is only suggested by a slight groove and her eyes by small round pits.

The split socket is decorated by ring-and-dots set into a pattern known as a double quincunx.

A hair pin was also recovered that has had the tip flattened into a leaf shape – possibly the deliberate conversion of the pin into a model spear. The shank is bent into a double curve, perhaps deliberate damage at the time of deposition.

This object may also be a reference to Minerva, as the weapon is one of her principal attributes, together with her Corinthian helmet, aegis (collar or cape), and shield.

These two objects representing Minerva may signify her as the local deity. She was also the goddess of crafts such as spinning and weaving, both major elements in the economy of the site.

The style of the Minerva busts ranges from elaborate and fully classical to more simplified Romano-Celtic versions. Most examples probably date to the 2nd century, with some perhaps belonging to the early 3rd century.

The number of Minerva bust handles recorded from Britain has recently increased due to the reporting of casual or detector finds under the Portable Antiquities Scheme.

Most come from rural, villa or sanctuary sites. Within the eastern region examples have been found at Stonea Grange and Cambridge in Cambridgeshire, and Stonham Earl in Suffolk.

It is possible that they were marketed as high-quality items for the civilian population, but they may also have been recycled as votive objects especially when, as at Love’s Farm, their iron blade has been removed.

The Monument

This feature stood out due to its prominent location on the crest of the slope, unusual layout and the striking arrangement of the radial ditch lines seemingly emanating from it. Its creation was part of a broader pattern of short-lived innovation or change that swept across the site in the 1st century AD.

The unusual layout and objects found, including a hairpin remodelled as a miniature spear (see the page about Minerva), indicate that this sub-circular enclosure may have been some form of shrine.

Landscape and diversity

It has long been held that the ‘cold clay lands’ of the River Ouse valley were inhospitable to earlier populations, remaining largely uninhabited. These clays were unforgiving to work and until recently were overlooked by archaeologists.

The countryside around St Neots was thought to owe its appearance to the 18th and 19th centuries AD. It appeared to have all the hallmarks of a modern post-enclosure agricultural landscape. One outcome of the Love’s Farm excavations has been to transform these assumptions.

The new work on the clay lands is starting to reveal a previously unseen, diverse and densely populated landscape. Our findings have been supported by experts in other fields who have generated an enormous amount of new data from geophysical survey, aerial photographs and further excavation within the St Neots area.

Aspects of the bigger picture that are beginning to emerge relate to the origins of an intensively settled agricultural landscape over 3,000 years old. This was comprehensively reorganised 2,000 years ago during the Late Iron Age and modified again during the Roman period.

The pattern of evolution of the landscape from the mid or later Bronze Age onwards has parallels further afield and includes many apparent similarities with other places including the Thames Valley.

Text and images copyright of Oxford Archaeology East, produced here with their kind permission.

Why are the Parliamentarians not wearing helmets?

A visitor recently asked the museum curator, Liz Davies about the image we are using to advertise our English Civil War Murder Mystery evening – why are the Parliamentarians not wearing roundhead helmets? We thought this was an interesting question and this was Liz’s thinking about it:

This woodcut shows men who are not actually fighting a battle so they are not wearing their fighting gear – which for the ordinary Parliamentarian soldier was the ’roundhead’ metal helmet, although some poor men might not even have worn a helmet.

The artist seems to have thought that similar people were wearing roughly similar clothes in the 1640s – as you might imagine – today we can’t really tell how someone votes from their clothes, same in the 1640s. Although wealthy people would have worn different clothes from very poor people and in this woodcut the Parliamentarian supporters are wearing slightly simpler clothes than the Royalists / Cavaliers, so no posh boots with spurs or smart sashes over their coats, this was obviously intended to mark them out as Puritans on the side of Parliament. As well as the boots and spurs the Royalists all have longer hair than the Parliamentarians, although every man has a moustache.

Kimbolton Coin Hoard

Kimbolton Coin Hoard – Treasure for the Gods exhibition

Our summer exhibition will showcase the Kimbolton Coin Hoard of Iron Age coins found at Kimbolton in 2010. Buried in the ground for 2,000 years our exhibition will uncover the story of their burial with information and hands-on activities for families and children.

On display for the first time in St Neots will be items found during the archaeological excavations at Loves Farm, St Neots including offerings made close to a probable Romano-British shrine on the site, as well as items from a Romano-British site in Eynesbury, St Neots and a spectacular Iron Age stone head from Godmanchester.

The exhibition will include information about the Iron Age including; everyday life, local tribes, religion and the Roman invasion in 43AD.

Hands on activities include, excavate hidden treasures in our sand tray, add a leaf to our oak tree, discover the importance of mistletoe to the Druids and make an offering in our well.

Our summer family activities are all themed around the exhibition and at our Heritage Open Day event on Saturday 9 September visitors will be able to discover Roman weapons, dress as a Roman and taste Roman food.

A booklet linked to the exhibition will be available and the Curator will give a talk about the coin hoard at the Museum on Wednesday 6 September at 2.30pm.

The exhibition has been supported by the Goodliff Fund of the Huntingdonshire Local History Society.

john Bellingham

Has a British Prime Minister ever been assassinated?

The answer is yes – but only once over two hundred years ago, on the 11 May 1812 by John Bellingham who shot dead the Rt. Hon. Spencer Perceval as he entered the House of Commons.

John Bellingham’s early life is largely unknown, and most post-assassination biographies included speculation as fact. Recollections of family and friends show that Bellingham was born in St Neots, Huntingdonshire, and brought up in London, where he was apprenticed to a jeweller, at age fourteen. Two years later, he went as a midshipman on the maiden voyage of the Hartwell from Gravesend to China. A mutiny took place on 22 May 1787, which led to the ship running aground and sinking.

In early 1794, a man named John Bellingham opened a tin factory on London’s Oxford Street, but it failed and the owner was declared bankrupt in March. It is not certain this is he, but Bellingham definitely worked as a clerk in a counting house in the late 1790s, and about 1800 he went to Arkhangelsk, Russia, as an agent for importers and exporters. He returned to England in 1802 and was a merchant broker in Liverpool. He married Mary Neville in 1803. In the summer of 1804, Bellingham again went to Arkhangelsk to work as an export representative.

In 1803, the Russian ship Soleure, insured at Lloyd’s of London, had been lost at sea. Her owners filed an insurance claim but an anonymous letter told Lloyd’s the ship had been sabotaged. The owners believed Bellingham was the author, and retaliated by accusing him of a debt of 4,890 roubles to a bankruptcy of which he was an assignee. Bellingham, about to return from Russia to Britain had his travelling pass withdrawn because of the alleged debt and he was placed in a Russian jail.

He 1809 he was allowed to leave Russia and once home, Bellingham began petitioning the United Kingdom’s government for compensation over his imprisonment. This was refused, as the United Kingdom had broken off diplomatic relations with Russia in November 1808. Bellingham’s wife urged him to drop the matter and he reluctantly did.

In 1812, Bellingham renewed his attempts to win compensation. On 18 April, he went to the Foreign Office where a civil servant told him he was at liberty to take whatever measures he thought proper. On 20 April, Bellingham purchased two .50 calibre (12.7 mm) pistols from a gunsmith of 58 Skinner Street. He also had a tailor sew an inside pocket to his coat. At this time, he was often seen in the lobby of the House of Commons.

After taking a friend’s family to a painting exhibition on 11 May 1812, Bellingham remarked that he had some business to attend to. He made his way to Parliament, where he waited in the lobby. When Prime Minister Spencer Perceval appeared, Bellingham stepped forward and shot him in the heart. He then calmly sat on a bench. Bellingham was immediately restrained and was identified by Isaac Gascoyne, MP for Liverpool.

John Bellingham was tried on Friday 15 May 1812 at the Old Bailey, where he argued that he would have preferred to shoot the British Ambassador to Russia, but insisted as a wronged man he was justified in killing the representative of his oppressors.

Evidence was presented that Bellingham was insane, but it was discounted by the trial judge, Sir James Mansfield. Bellingham was found guilty, and was sentenced to death and was hung in public three days later. His skull was preserved at Barts Pathology Museum.

A subscription was raised for the widow and children of Bellingham, and “their fortune was ten times greater than they could ever have expected in any other circumstances”. His widow remarried the following year.

In September 2009 the St Neots Local History Society erected a plaque on Bellingham House in St Neots. The house, on the corner of Huntingdon Street and Cambridge Street, is said to be the birthplace of Bellingham.

Walter Horsford

Walter Horsford and the case of the St Neots poisoning

In 1898 a 26-year-old farmer, Walter Horsford, stood trial at Huntingdon Assizes charged with the murder, by poisoning, of his cousin Annie Holmes. He pleaded not guilty.

The prosecution, led by Mr. Rawlinson, Q.C., stated that Annie lived at Stoneleigh near Kimbolton in Huntingdonshire. She was a widow and had three children, the youngest still a baby. It was alleged that Horsford was intimate with Annie. In October of 1897, Horsford had married a woman named Bessie. At the end of that month Annie moved to a cottage at St. Neots. By December Annie told Horsford that she was pregnant by him. He wrote her a letter which said, “Dear Annie, Will come over on Friday to see if we can come to an arrangement of some sort or other, but you must remember that I paid you for what I had done. I gave you half a crown and so if I thought well not to give you anything you could not get it. But still I don’t want the talk and to hear it that was by me that you are so.”

On the 28th of December Horsford went to a chemists in Thrapstone and purchased 90 grains of strychnine, on the pretext of killing rats. On the 7th of January 1898, Annie was found dead by her daughter, also Annie. A search of her bedroom revealed a packet containing strychnine with the words “Take in a little water. It is quite harmless”, written on it in Horsford’s handwriting.

Mr. Paine the chemist who had sold Horsford the poison gave evidence and produced the poison register showing Horsford’s signature.

Annie junior told the court that on the evening of January the 7th her mother had taken a full glass of water up to her bedroom. When she looked in her mother later most of the water had gone. Later that night her mother began exhibiting the signs of poisoning and Annie went to get help.

Expert witnesses testified about the handwriting, the cause of death and the fact that Annie was not pregnant. On Monday the 6th of June 1898, after a brief deliberation by the jury, Horsford was convicted of the murder and sentenced to death.

Horsford was transferred to Cambridge prison for execution on Tuesday the 28th of June 1898. An execution shed had been constructed in one of the prison’s yards. Two member of the press were admitted. James Billington pinioned Horsford in the condemned cell at 7.59 am. He was led out into the yard and on into the execution shed in a procession formed by the governor, the Sheriff, Mr. Fowler, the surgeon, four warders and the chaplain, the Rev. Mr. Christie. Horsford walked unaided and maintained his composure to the end. Billington got the hood and noose on quickly, while his assistant, Robert Wade, strapped Horsford’s legs. A drop of 7 feet was given and death was recorded as “instantaneous”. A large crowd had gathered outside the prison to see the black flag raised.

At the inquest later in the morning the prison surgeon testified that there had been fracture/dislocation of Horsford’s neck vertebrae.

Newspapers could print pictures by this time and it is thus possible to have an artist’s impression of what Annie and Horsford looked like.